DevOps is the current trend in software development where autonomous teams should own the full life cycle of a product. In short, this means they need to build and run the product they own. Teams become responsible for writing the code, managing the infrastructure, monitoring the application health, and supporting the product. By using autonomous DevOps teams, organizations hope to be able to respond to the ever-changing demands of their clients and be able to differentiate from their competitors.
To enable teams to become autonomous and good owners, a heavy use of automation is key. Build automation, release orchestrations, and Infrastructure as Code are becoming mainstream and essential for development teams. There are many tools and processes to enable teams to do this. But there is one specific area for which very few teams have a good automated solution. And that is the management of permissions and security. This has several reasons. One of the most commonly heard is that security keys should not end up in the hands of developers because of obvious risks.
What are the options for DevOps teams to perform permission management?
But how DO we enable DevOps teams to manage permissions? There are several options to consider and let’s take a look at a few examples for a team working on Azure.
Firstly, teams could utilize the Azure Portal to manually manage the permissions. That might work for small organizations and startups, but as soon as you start to scale up, or when audit regulations come in to play, the portal is very limited in functionality. It does not support audit trails, and it requires high privileges for many users. And by allowing certain users to be Azure subscription owners, the risk is that they might break other infrastructure by carrying out manual changes.
The most important downside is that this approach requires a lot of manual labor and it is impossible to reproduce the current state if you would need to recreate your entire infrastructure.
Hello ticket system!
When permissions need to be limited to fewer people, a second solution that is being used a lot in non-DevOps cultures is a ticketing system. These kinds of solutions help in streamlining the process but have some major downsides. When teams with the special privilege of setting these permissions have to support many teams, or get a large number of requests, queues might occur and thus these requests will block the flow of development teams.
Another downside is that these forms and tools are far away from the code and tools the development teams love to use. And last but not least, there is only a paper audit trail of what was requested, but this has no relation with what actually happened. There is no way to recreate the environment from the audit trail in the ticket system.
Automation is key
The best option is to use automation for these kinds of repetitive tasks. We’ve seen several companies build their own self-service portals and have even helped some of them release these types of solutions. These self-service portals can streamline the permission requests in a far superior way compared to ticketing systems, because all requests are automatically handled by the application instead of ending up in a queue for a human to process them. This automated process can be extended to match your own requirements.
However, an automated self-service portal also has some downsides. Building such an application requires quite some coding effort, and since we’re working with permissions and access, security bugs can be easily introduced. And, if you want to build more complex requirements such as audit trails or 4-eyes principles, your application becomes more complex, which comes with substantial maintenance effort. Another downside of automated self-service portals is something it shares with the ticketing system: It is still a portal somewhere on the inter/intranet that is far away from the tools the developers like to use.
Our Goal: Rethink the way in which development teams interact with organizational silos.
Permission management is one of the many examples where development teams have a dependency on another team, department or system. Other examples are firewalls, identity management, and computing resources. In our case, we wanted to build a better solution for development teams to perform permission management, but similar solutions can be created for other scenarios.
In our scenario, we wanted to create a solution for development teams that would tackle the difficulties of managing permissions with a number of key goals in mind:
A solution that works for developers
Our solution should be something that is close to developers, integrates in their workflow, and does not require all kinds of web applications that are located somewhere on the inter/intranet.
We did not want to customize too much ourselves but we had a number of requirements that we considered as “must haves”. These requirements were things like audit trails, 4-eyes principle on changes, automated deployments, and versioning on changes
And last but not least, it should connect to developers. What do developers love most? Code! So the solution we build has to be based on code. Not just any code, but code that can easily be read by developers and by non-developers.
What can building a solution based on code offer us?
The most frequently used communication mechanism between business and developers is through documents. Documents that describe what needs to be done. A very nice approach to make this a bit more structured and readable by both humans and machines are structured files, For instance, Yaml, XML or JSON, which is human and machine readable.
When requirements like permissions, firewall ports, etcetera are written down in a structured format, all of a sudden this can be implemented automatically by a machine. When we describe our permissions in structured files, which is essentially just code, developers can change it within their development workflow without having to make changes in other solutions.
Let’s take a look at an example file:
resourcegroup: xpirit-asac-article - userPrincipal: Asac-Group-Owners role: Owner - userPrincipal: Asac-Group-Readers role: Reader - userPrincipal: email@example.com role: Contributor
This snippet, with a few lines of code, describes the end state of users and groups in a resource group. When you look at the snippet, you see straight away what the resource group looks like. If you compare this with requests in a ticketing system, you would have to take the start state and all changes together to see what the current or end state should look like.
This is great, but the main advantage of a structured file is that it can be shared with the team, the business and operations. And even better, it can be interpreted and executed by a machine. This makes recreating environments a lot easier as well.
Version Control as auditing tool
Now that we have a solution for writing the requirements in code, we should also have a solution for the audit trail, 4-eyes principle, and versioning. Here is where source control, in our case Git, comes in. Combining code with Git, which most developers are already accustomed with, gives us most of the requirements we wanted, and for free! Git has built-in functionality for versioning, branching and audit trails. Most Git servers have pull request features which give us reviews, approvals or 4-eyes principles. And when we add automated builds and releases, we can also add automation to process these code changes into environment changes.
The last advantage of having the permissions in code is that the team itself is in full control of what the changes will be. They do not require certain admins or central teams to manage their permissions for them.
Introducing Azure Security as Code
As mentioned before, the principle of using structured files and Git instead of manual work and ticketing systems is broadly applicable. Many systems can be unlocked by applying the same principles. To give you a hint of what is possible we would like to guide you through our use case: ‘Setting permissions on Azure’.
The first thing we thought about was the technology stack. We wanted a library that was cross-platform and could be easily extended using the Azure API. The eventual choices we made for our technology stack were as follows.
We use the yaml format to store the security configuration. Yaml can easily be read by people, even the not so technical ones, and it is great for merging in Git.
AZ Command Line Interface (Azure CLI)
All interaction with the Azure API is done with the Azure CLI. We choose this because Azure CLI is a cross-platform implementation that is broadly used. Microsoft promotes the API and makes sure it is always up-to-date with the latest Azure API. Alternatives like PowerShell Modules or C# libraries are sometimes lacking behind.
To write the orchestration of the scripts and make it easily usable as cmdlets, we use Cross-Platform PowerShell. This runs on every platform and is perfect to write the script flow, using the Azure CLI for doing the real work.
As an optional service, especially for people on Linux or Mac, we provide a Docker container where both the CLI and PowerShell are installed together with the latest version of the Azure Security as Code library.
Installing the software
The second thing we thought of was the usage of the library. How will people consume the library? We wanted to make this is as easy as possible and came up with two different distribution mechanisms: installing via a Powershell Module, and running it in a Docker container.
Because we understand that every use case is different, we made it an open source library so people can extend and modify it to their needs.
Azure Security as Code can be installed from the source code on Github, by installing the Powershell Module from the PowerShell Gallery or by pulling and running the Docker container from Docker Hub. This article uses the
To get started, open a PowerShell Windows (admin mode) and install the Azure-SecurityAsCode Module. Because the modules use the AZ CLI underwater, login to Azure with the Azure CLI as well.
Install-Module Azure-SecurityAsCode #login with Azure CLI az login
Looking at the available cmdlets there are 3 main categories:
- Get-Asac-All[Resources] – This retrieves all resources of a specific type into separate yaml files. For example. all resource groups and related RBAC settings will be stored.
- Get-Asac-[Resource] – This retrieves a specific resource into a yaml file.
- Process-Asac-[Resource] – This applies the configuration that is defined in the yaml file.
Let’s take a sample scenario to understand how this works.
Scenario: Manage your RBAC on resource groups
To make it a bit more tangible, let’s walk you through a scenario in which we want to baseline the security of our Azure Resource Group. We want to let teams manage their own security without giving them the keys. Therefore we need to baseline the resource group and store the settings as a structured file in Git, where the development team can then modify it.
# Get all the resource groups in the subscription and their RBAC settings in the current directory Get-Asac-AllResourceGroups -outputPath $pwd # Get settings for 1 resource group Get-Asac-ResourceGroup -resourcegroup xpirit-asac-article -outputPath $pwd
When these commands are executed, a YAML file for each resource group is created in the target folder as follows:
resourcegroup: xpirit-asac-article rbac: - userPrincipal: Asac-Group-Owners role: Owner - userPrincipal: Asac-Group-Readers role: Reader - userPrincipal: firstname.lastname@example.org role: Contributor
Let’s assume we want to assign rights to asac-user-02, make them Reader, and remove the Asac-Group-Readers from the resource group.
We update the YAML as follows:
resourcegroup: xpirit-asac-article rbac: - userPrincipal: Asac-Group-Owners role: Owner - userPrincipal: email@example.com role: Contributor - userPrincipal: firstname.lastname@example.org role: Reader
After updating the yaml, we call the following Asac cmdlet.
Process-Asac-ResourceGroup -resourcegroup xpirit-asac-article -basePath $pwd
The new settings are applied to the resource group.
This scenario is for resource groups, but the same actions can also be executed for other resources, for example SQL Server, DataLakeStore, and Key vault.
Making this part of the development process
Now that we have seen how easy and convenient it is to set roles and users, we need to ask the question: “How can we embed this in the development process?”
The answer is pretty simple. In exactly the same way as you treat your other code and configuration files.
The first step is to set up a Git repository that can hold all the configuration files.
A perfect way to make your Git repository accessible to everyone is to use Azure DevOps Repos.
The next step is to set branch policies on your Git repository that allow you to control check-ins to the Git Repository. If you want teams to set and request their own security settings, but still want to have control over the process, branch policies are a perfect way to do so.
In VSTS, navigate to the code repository and select branches. On the master branch, select the Branch Policies option.
Select the [Require a number of reviewers] policy in the branch policy. Optionally add Automatic Reviewers to have someone from the security team review all the changes.
Once you have set up the branch policy, you need to make sure the policy is applied once you have changed this. Of course there are many ways to do this. The easiest way is to have a Continuous Integration build that runs every time a change is merged to the master branch.
Just configure a build with a Powershell script that runs the Process-Asac-[resource] cmdlets.
What else can we do?
The way forward in a DevOps world where automation is key, is by moving towards a model in which configuration is stored as code. By using Git and Build Pipelines as a mechanism to move configuration changes to production offers a lot of benefits. First and foremost the auditability and traceability of a change, and secondly it is a nice and easy review mechanism.
But Configuration as code can bring more benefits. You can use it to describe end-state, which enables you to rebuild things from scratch without having to know all history. And you can use it as living documentation of your system, or use the files as baseline to validate changes.
Azure Security as Code is one example of how to use development methodologies as a way to enable development teams. But of course this does not only apply to our specific scenario. Rethinking the way in which people interact, replacing humans with machines and manual actions with automated processes is the real take away. You can do this by storing settings in a structured format, choosing the right technology stack, and enabling your end-users to stay close to the tools they use and love. Because in the end it is all about enabling people to be more productive and deliver more value to the end-customers.
Would you like to contribute?
If you want to contribute to the library, please take a look at our Xpirit Github page.
This article is part of XPRT. magazine #7.
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