For over four decades, students aspiring to become seafarers on one of the world’s many ships, either as a navigator on the ship’s bridge, or chief in the engine room, have studied and honed their skills on Kongsberg’s simulators. Believing that knowledge is instrumental to safe and cost-efficient operation, Kongsberg has strived to remove the limitations inherent in the students’ operating environment to enable their customers, the instructors, and educators, to create any training scenario. With the help of the simulators, the instructor can create the most vivid and challenging experience for the students, such as groundings, collisions, communication blackouts, system failures, or a hundred-year storm.

The maritime industry is in transformation, just like the transformation from sail to steam, or from the compass to GPS. The future of the maritime industry is autonomous ships, green shift, and remote operations. The educators are not only faced with this challenge of transformation, but also with the problem of digitalization. Students now take instant access to digital services for granted. To bridge this gap, Kongsberg is deploying a new platform using cloud technology to deliver traditional simulation training in a new and different way. By combining proven and loved simulators that customers are confident and comfortable with, as well as new cloud-native technology, simulators are becoming even more accessible, available anytime and anywhere for students. Students can now keep building their competency outside the classroom and be as prepared as possible for the challenges that lie ahead.

We call this platform K-Sim Connect, a journey that started in 2017 by moving Kongsberg’s engine room simulator (ERS) to the cloud. In this article, we will share the challenges we faced, the solutions that we have chosen, and the lessons we have learned.

Moving a 30+-year-old software to the cloud

Kongsberg created the engine room simulator over 30 years ago and up until this point it had only been installed on-site at customers. We aimed to bring the engine room simulator to the cloud without having to change it too much to enable both on-site and Simulation-as-a-Service delivery models.

Kongsberg’s engine room simulator simulates the engine room of a specific ship model. It thus allows students to learn, for example, how to perform a cold start or emergency shutdown without physically being in the engine room of the ship.

Students perform a specific exercise, such as an emergency shutdown, and the simulator tracks their performance as part of an assessment. Instructors use this assessment as a pass/fail criteria for classes and specific certifications.

Figure 1: engine room simulator screen

Figure 1 shows a typical screen of the client application. The engine room simulators consist of many of these screens. Each screen represents specific controls that are in the actual engine room of the simulated ship model. On a customer site, these digital screens can be replaced by a physical replica of the ship’s engine room to allow for an even more immersive learning experience.

To understand what it takes to bring this simulator to the cloud, you need to understand the basics of how the engine room simulator works.

Figure 2: ERS topology (simplified)

The engine room simulator is a client/server application where the simulation of the state of the ship’s engine room runs on a server application (called simulator in figure 2). The students connect to this server through a client application (see Figure 1). First, the client and server perform a handshake process to determine the range of ports used for further communication. Next, the client and server exchange several messages over this range of ports.

Figure 2 assumes that both applications run on a single computer. Still, it is also possible for multiple clients to connect to a single server in the same network as part of a collaborative exercise.


Figure 3: Moving the ERS to the cloud

Since the engine room simulator has a client-server style architecture and it already supports running a distributed setup,  the most straightforward way of bringing the engine room simulator to the cloud was to move the server part (simulator in Figure 3).

The rest of this article will cover the three main challenges we ran into when we took the 30+-year-old engine room simulator to the cloud.

The first challenge: containerization

The engine room simulator was built over 30 years ago, well before the age of containers. Our challenge was to run it on-demand, and in the cloud, so we decided to put the simulator in a Docker container. Containerization did, however, pose some challenges, for example, the code used low-level Win 32 API calls with C++, it uses arcane constructs such as “/etc/services”, and relies on Windows Registry settings. These Windows-specific constructs meant we had to use Windows Server Core containers, which are some of the largest Docker images that exist. Also, when we started in 2017, the Windows container community was small (it still is), and official support in Docker-related open source projects was simply not there. But containers did fit our needs perfectly, so we decided to try and use Windows containers to bring Kongsberg’s engine room simulator into the cloud era.

The second challenge: the internet

After successfully running the engine room simulator in a Windows container, we faced another challenge. Since Kongsberg built the engine room simulator well before “the cloud” even existed, its distributed installation option assumed that the clients and server were at least on the same local area network (LAN), meaning that there are no firewalls in the middle. This assumption posed a challenge because the engine room simulator uses a proprietary communication protocol that dynamically allocates ~100 ports as part of the initial handshake process.

Figure 4: Tunneling over HTTPS Websockets

To overcome this challenge, we needed the help of the vendor, who made this communication protocol. They made a specialized tunnel for us that tunneled all messages over HTTPS using a single WebSocket connection. This tunnel allowed us to connect the client and server application over the internet.

The third challenge: on-demand simulation

We were now technically able to run the engine room simulator in the cloud and to connect to it over the internet. But to run simulations as a service, we still needed a way for students to start simulation anytime and anywhere using the Azure cloud. There were several container orchestrators available, but in 2017 already, Kubernetes had the largest community and was getting adopted by the major cloud vendors. However, when we started, the technology of Windows containers in Kubernetes was still in beta. Windows containers in Kubernetes became generally available in 1.15.0 (June 19, 2019).

Initially, we chose AKS engine to provision our Kubernetes cluster in Azure. AKS engine is the tool that Microsoft uses under the hood to provision AKS clusters, and since we knew Microsoft was working on supporting clusters with Windows nodes, we felt this was the best approach available to us. AKS engine generates the required templates and script to provision a cluster, but you end up with VMs that you have to manage yourself. Recently Microsoft officially started supporting multiple node pools in AKS, which means that you can also have Windows nodes, although the Windows part of this feature is still in preview at the time of writing.

Figure 5: Kubernetes topology (simplified)

Figure 5 shows a simplified topology of how we utilize Kubernetes to run simulations as a service in the cloud. There are three main components involved in providing our simulation as a service solution to the students. We have a portal in which the students can, amongst other things, select an engine room model they want to train on and choose an exercise they want to run. We have a WPF application that runs on the student’s computer, starts the simulator client, and configures it to connect to the simulator running in the cloud. And we have a scheduler component that creates the required Kubernetes resources to run the simulator in the cloud and makes it accessible to the simulator client running on the student’s computer. All three components use a single SignalR Hub to communicate.

To start a new simulation in the cloud, a student will select an exercise in the portal and request to run it. Doing this sends a message to our scheduler, which will then create all required Kubernetes resources. The scheduler will then publish a message to the WPF application on the student’s computer, which starts the simulator client application and configures it to connect to the simulator running in our Kubernetes cluster.

There is a lot more going on behind the scenes to run these simulations in the cloud, but explaining all of that would be an article on its own. Instead, we will share what we learned from this journey.

What we learned 

Besides the technical challenges we had to overcome, the engine room simulator was surprisingly well suited to run in the cloud. Its client-server architecture allowed us to move the server to our Kubernetes cluster and move the client to the student’s computer.

Windows containers are different from Linux containers. Windows containers are simply a lot larger in size, especially if you need the full Windows Server image like us. There are also challenges with the Windows Server version you run on your Kubernetes node and the Windows Server version of the docker image, and these have to align to some level.

Using beta/preview versions of Kubernetes because we needed Windows container support meant we did face some technical difficulties, but Kubernetes itself works well with Windows containers, especially after version 1.15.0. And the concept of Kubernetes, scheduling container workloads on-demand is a perfect fit for the problem we had to solve: running simulations on demand. So, we chose to work with the restrictions and challenges that come with using beta/preview features over building an orchestrator. We firmly believed that official Windows support was on its way.  So not having to develop an orchestrator certainly paid off, especially now that Kubernetes is officially supporting Windows nodes, and Azure Kubernetes Service (AKS) is close to officially supporting windows node pools as well.

It is possible to bring old software to the cloud and even change the way you offer it to your customers without doing a complete rewrite. Containerization with Windows containers helped this transition even with software that is 30+ years old and still allows Kongsberg to offer both models, on-demand simulation, and on-site installation.

What the future holds

The global market already embraces the K-Sim Connect platform and is in the early phase of adopting simulation beyond the training centers and schools. What seemed like a threat to the experienced instructors only a few years ago has turned into enthusiasm and discussions about the opportunities. Today the engine room simulator is our first cloud simulator in operation, but we will not stop there. We are already working on bringing navigation simulators and applications like radar training, navigation, and maneuvering to the cloud. Kongsberg is transforming the industry of maritime simulation and training and is leading the way to the future. Together with customers, students, instructors, legislators, and even competitors, we will continue this journey in confidence to unfold our collective future.


This article was also written by Gullik Anthon Jensen for XPRT. Magazine #10. You can read the rest of the digital magazine here.