The Human Computer: Rise of the Bots

/ 27 Jul, 2018

Imagine walking into your home after a hard day of work and just asking “OK Jarvis, can you please order me a pizza Pepperoni from Domino’s for dinner? Also, please tell my boss that I’m taking the day off tomorrow. And now, let’s watch the awesome
Bruce Willis in Die Hard 4”.

This article will show you how you can build your own intelligent “Jarvis”. Of course, you could buy something readily available like an Amazon Echo or a Google Home, but where’s the fun in that? Why buy them, when you can build something yourself?

Seems impossible? It’s not. You probably have an app on your phone to order a pizza. Telling your boss you’re taking the day off is a matter of writing a quick e-mail. And Die Hard 4 is available on Netflix. All these services and technologies are available today. It’s just a matter of how we interact with them.


In today’s world, there is an ever increasing amount of technology to serve us. Smarter devices, linked to more and more services which are deeply integrated into our lives. What would you do without your smartphone and the services it unlocks for you? And what about your smart TV, your smart fridge and your smart home?

Electronic services have become an integral part of our lives, and we need new ways of interacting with all this technology. Interaction must become more similar to how we interact with other humans. Technologies like Artificial Intelligence enable this, because machines can now understand what we mean.

Bots will become a vital part of this new way of interaction. You communicate with a bot in the same way you would communicate with another human being. For example through e-mail, chat, text messages or speech. In this article we will show you how you can create a simple bot that understands human language. We will enable the bot to control the lights in our home. Our bot is created by using the Azure Bot Service and the Bot Framework.

The Azure Bot Service

We’re using the Azure Bot Service to build our bot. This provides an easy way to connect your bot to different “channels”. A “channel” is a way for a user to interact with our bot. There are quite a few channels available right out of the box, such as Skype, Facebook, Teams, Slack, SMS, Cortana, and others. By leveraging the bot service, the actual implementation of our bot is basically reduced to implementation of a web API, and the bot service takes care of the rest.

The Microsoft Bot Framework

A conversation between the bot and a user is structured around “Dialogs”. For example, you could have a conversation to order a pizza, send an e-mail message, start a movie on Netflix, or switch on the lights in a certain room. The Microsoft Bot Framework offers an easy way to implement these dialogs, and includes an emulator to test your bot locally.

Language understanding

To make our bot understand human language we’ll use Language Understanding (LUIS). LUIS allows us to define an “intent”. An intent is an action that a user can perform. These intents are linked to methods in our web API implementation. LUIS will learn which intent the user has by interpreting what the user says. This is called an “utterance”.

For example, utterances like “I would like to switch off the lights” and “Turn the lights off” will both refer to the intent of “LightsOff”.

At first, you will have to give LUIS some example utterances for each intent that you define. As the usage of your bot increases, there will be more utterances for each intent. Initially, you will have to tell LUIS which intent is meant for each utterance. But, as LUIS learns, it will get smarter and will automatically start to understand the correct intent for new utterances that it encounters. You can get started with LUIS by checking the walkthrough on the Microsoft site.

But what if your commands may apply to different contexts? For example, what if you only want to turn off the lights in the living room, or in the kitchen? For this, you can use the concept of “entities”. Entities allow commands to be reused in multiple contexts. In this case, an utterance could be “Please turn off the lights in the kitchen”. When first encountered, you would tell LUIS that the intent for this utterance is “Lights-Off”, and that it contains the entity named “room”, with value “kitchen”. You can even have multiple entities within a single utterance.

Figure 1: LUIS powered bot


Utterance Intent Entity name Entity value
“Please turn off the lights in the kitchen” LightsOff Room Kitchen
“Please turn on the lights in the bathroom” LightsOn Room Bathroom
“Please turn off the lights” LightsOff


Looking at the internals of a bot application as shown in Figure 1, you will recognize elements from a real-life conversation. A dialog between a bot and a human happens within a context. Individual messages are called activities. The bot talks to LUIS for language understanding. The input from the human is passed to LUIS and the discovered intents and entities are returned.

Create your LUIS model by adding intents and utterances. For example, combine intent ‘LightsOn’ with utterance ‘turn on the lights in the room‘ and mark the word ‘room’ as an entity. More utterances lead to better language understanding. Finally, make sure to train, test and publish the LUIS app, to make it accessible for your new bot.


Now it’s time to get your hands dirty and write some code. In this chapter we will create a bot that is able to process LUIS intents. The bot will understand commands like “Turn the lights on in the kitchen”. To get started, first create a new ASP.NET MVC web project, targeting .NET framework 4.6.1 or higher.

Next, add the following Nuget packages:


To add the bot behavior, add a class named RootDialog that inherits from LuisDialog<T>. Mapping LUIS intents to methods on this dialog is done by using a LuisIntentAttribute. In Figure 2 you can see code that maps a LUIS intent named “LightsOn” to a dialog method named ‘LightsOn’. The method uses three parameters:

  • The context is used to describe the context of a conversation between the bot and the end-user. We use this to send a message back to the end-user to request more information, or to send back confirmation that the command was properly handled by the bot.
  • An activity represents a message in a conversation; it will not be used in our code.
  • Parameter result describes what LUIS learned from the user input. For instance, any entities that were detected in the user input. In our code, we will check for an entity that describes the room in which to turn on the lights.


public async Task LightsOn(IDialogContext context,
    IAwaitable<IMessageActivity> activity, LuisResult result)

Figure 2: Mapping LUIS intents to Dialog methods

Now that you understand what the parameters are for, let’s add some behavior to the method. This is shown in Figure 3.

public async Task LightsOn(IDialogContext context,
    IAwaitable<IMessageActivity> activity, LuisResult result)
    var room = result.Entities.FirstOrDefault();
    if (room != null)
        await context.PostAsync($”Turning lights on in {room.Entity}!”);
        var rooms = QueryRoomsList();
        PromptDialog.Choice(context, LightsOnWhere,
            options: rooms.ToList(), prompt: “Where?”);

Figure 3: Implementation of LightsOn

We start off by checking whether LUIS was able to detect a room entity. If so, it will be used as the room in which to turn on the lights. We notify the end-user, and wait for the next interaction. If no room entity was detected, we will ask for the location to be selected from a list of all known rooms. We specify method ‘LightsOnWhere’ to handle the users’ answer. When this method is called, we know that the end-user intends to have the lights turned on, and that he has just specified the room. The implementation is displayed in Figure 4. Note that this method does not have an attribute, as this is not the start of a conversation, but rather the end.

public async Task LightsOnWhere(IDialogContext context, IAwaitable argument)
    var room = await argument;
    await context.PostAsync($”Turning the lights on in {room}!”);

Figure 4: Implementation of LightsOnWhere

The implementation of ‘ToggleLightState’ depends on the type of Home Automation software you are running. So, for now, we will leave this empty. Next, add the constructor to the dialog. The constructor takes arguments that are used to authenticate the bot to the LUIS service. In a production situation, you would put these credentials in a secure store, like in an Azure Key Vault. However, for this walkthrough we will keep them in a configuration file. The modelID value can be found on the LUIS portal, on the ‘Settings’ page as Application ID. The value for subscriptionKey is visible on the ‘Publish’ page under the label Key String. The sample code for the Dialog constructor is in Figure 5.

public RootDialog() : base(
    new LuisService(new LuisModelAttribute(ConfigurationManager.AppSettings[“modelId”], 

Figure 5: Dialog constructor


Our bot dialog is now complete. We will now create code that hosts the dialog inside a Web Api to enable interaction with the bot. To do this, we add a class named MessagesController that inherits from ApiController. The controller needs to respond to input, sent by users. In a Web Api, this is usually done by exposing an Action that handles POST requests. The implementation is shown in Figure 6. If the incoming activity is a message, it is passed to the dialog we created earlier. The bot framework will ensure that the proper dialog method is called, based on the information that LUIS detects in the posted message.

public async Task<HttpResponseMessage> Post([FromBody] Activity activity)
    if (activity.Type == ActivityTypes.Message)
        await Conversation.SendAsync(activity, () => new Dialogs.RootDialog());
    var response = Request.CreateResponse(HttpStatusCode.OK);
    return response;

Figure 6: Implementation of Post

Your bot can now be tested by running it inside the Bot Framework Emulator as shown in Figure 7. Run your web site locally and note the URL at which it is running. By default, this will be http://localhost:2584/api/messages. Incoming calls will be directed to the controller we have just created. Open the emulator, and enter the URL and press ‘Connect’ to connect the emulator to your local bot. The emulator can translate user input to “Activity” data and send it to the bot. It can also interpret responses by the bot and present those to the user. Test your bot by typing “Turn the lights on in the kitchen”. If LUIS was able to interpret, the dialog method marked with the corresponding LUIS intent “LightsOn” will be invoked.

Figure 7: Bot Framework Emulator

Conclusion & next steps

We’ve shown you how to use the Microsoft Bot Service and the Bot Framework to create a simple bot that understands natural language and can switch the lights in our home.

So, what’s next? In the next issue of XPRT we will make our bot more human. By adding speaker recognition your bot will recognize you when you talk to it. And we will go one step further, and show you how to make your bot sensitive to human moods. A true Jarvis experience!

This article is part of our latest magazine; XPRT.#6   Download it here or get your free copy.